Venesection is contra –indicated in the following conditions;

  • Excessively cold temperament;
  • Extremely cold climate;
  • Severe pain
  • After resolving bath;
  • Aftercoltus;
  • In children under fourteen years of age and in elderly persons.

  • Venesection is carried out in both young and old people if the body-build, firmness and strength of muscles, width and fullness of vessels and colour and complexion indicate that they are fit to stand it. If necessary, blood should be taken out at several sittings, venesection is also contraindicated in the case of ;
  • Unduly thin or obese persons;
  • Those who are flabby and have pale puffy complexion;
  • Those with a sallow complexion and
  • Chronic invalids unless their disability is due to abnormal blood. The colour and consistency of the blood should always be noted. As soon as the blood turns pale and thin, venesection should be stopped by bandaging the wound otherwise dangerous complications might follow. Dark and thick blood should however, be allowed to escape freely. Venesection is also contraindicated;
  • With a full stomach, as partially digested and immature matters are drawn into the vessels to compensate for the blood loss from venesection;
  • When the stomach is full of waste material or bowels are loaded with fully formed or semiformedfaeces, a preliminary elimination is essential. In such circumstances, emesis to clean the stomach, and enema to clear the bowels should be given before performing the venesection. Persons suffering from dyspepsia should not be venesected until their digestion has become normal.

  • Similarly venesection is contra –indicated in the case of those suffering from irritability. Or weakness of the pit of stomach or on whom excess of bile is being constantly produced in the stomach the irritability of stomach is known from the discomfort caused by condiments. Weakness of the pit of stomach is recognized from the lack of appetite and presence of pain and epigastric discomfort. Excess of bile produces constant nausea and bilious vomiting, and there is also bitter taste in the mouth. In such cases, if venesection is carried out without giving due consideration to the condition of stomach dangerous complications and even death might occur. Hence, in patients with a weak or sensitive stomach a small quantity of bread soaked in some fragrant rob should be given before the venesection. If weakness of the pit of stomach is due to a cold temperament, bread soaked in fragrant syrup or wine prepared with mint, or quince flavoured with musk should be given before the venesection.

    Those with excess of bile should have emesis with syrup of vinegar, or plenty of hot water before venesection, observe rest and quietude and eat some light food. The loss of blood from venesection should be built up quickly. Strong and robust persons may take kababs although they are somewhat heavy. When kababsarre digested well they can be extremely nutritious, but as the stomach tends to be weak after venesection they are better avoided.